Part I: Construct Development and Scale Creation
1) Choose a construct you would like to measure.
The construct will measure the functionality of working memory (WM) at the workplace, with the example of the performance of bookkeeping tasks.
2) Create an operational definition of your construct using at least three peer reviewed journal articles as sources as references.
Since individual’s WM capacities differ not only among people but also between different tasks or settings (Salthouse & Babcock, 1991), measurements should relate to the field of transfer, in this case – performance bookkeeping tasks. Such tasks typically require transfer of data from one medium to another, e.g. from a list to a computer (Carruthers & Espeland, 1991), and WM is typically defined as the quantity of information recalled 30 seconds after the learning phase (Baddeley, 2003). Hence, the operational definition in this domain should focus on the relative amount of pairs of financial data (i.e. name of account and a sum) recalled out of 15 pairs.
L. King once said that “Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in the darkness of destructive selfishness.” Princeton defines “altruism” as the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others. Most other dictionaries concur. Nevertheless, I have a problem with accepting the value opposition altruism – egoism, and the reason is that for me the concept of “altruism” is philosophically inconsistent.
Decision making can be regarded as a process mental processes leading to the selection of a course of action, a decision, among number of available alternatives. A selected decision may be far from optimal due to number of reasons, internal or external to the subject of decision making process. Besides trivial errors in estimating outcomes, the reasons for non-optimal decisions may be result when alternatives were not clearly defined or required information was not collected. However, one of the major problems may lay in decision makers cognitive and personal biases, being a tendency or preference towards a particular perspective, ideology or result, interfering with the ability to be impartial, unprejudiced, or objective (Soukhanov, 1992, p. 231). This paper reviews several major types of internal cognitive biases which may prevent from optimal decision making.
processes underlying cognition processes, including memorizing, still remain widely unexplored. However some of the researches provide theories, which may explain how these processes working. Reconstruction theory of memory objects mechanistic concepts of memory and explain several human cognitive phenomena.
When looking at people they all seem to be the same. All of them have two hands, two legs, and one head. All of them have hair, tens fingers, and ten toes. However, when it comes to looking at characters, not only we see that all people are different, but we are simply astonished by the variety of human characters there are. For example, while some people prefer to speak up and think out loud, for others this is the worst fear. Indeed, there are people for who even the smallest extent of public speaking or the merest moment of direct attention is a torture. We all know such people, without a shadow of doubt, every one of us has a friend like this. These people are referred to as “shy” or “inward directed”. In my paper I would like to talk about shyness from the psychological point of view. To begin with I will describe the phenomenon of shyness in detail. Then provide some ways to overcome shyness. Finally, I will try to distinguish whether shyness is a personal trait or a mental disorder. The paper will be based on the vast amount of literature research as well as personal ruminations.