The article discusses the proliferation practice of ethnic marketing that is manifested in the form of new product lines, tailored advertising, and customized promotion programs. It suggests three theoretical models for determining cost-effectiveness of marketing to specific ethnic groups: nested approach, cost-benefit optimization, and marketing mix differentiation. All the three models are represented graphically in a creative and accessible manner. Continue reading
As said American essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson „The first wealth is health“ (Hollister 2004). Indeed, he is right. Heath is that things that money can’t buy. Proper nutrition is the pledge of health, strength, and beauty of the man. However, in the United States one can observe another situation where many people suffer from anorexia nervosa. Continue reading
International trade is an exchange of goods and services between individuals and firms from different countries. For several millennia, since the dawn of civilizations, the export of goods to foreign countries in exchange for foreign goods was an integral feature of the global economy.
There are several advantages of International Trade. One of them is that international trade enables every country to receive goods, which country does not produce itself as any country is not self-sufficient. There are also limitations of International Trade. For instance, legal and regulatory forces can heavily affect businesses. Government laws, trade regulations, taxes, and other issues are interpreted differently country by country. This can discourage participation in global business (Feenstra, 2003).
This report covers the following four keys points: theories of absolute and comparative advantage, influences that affect exchange rates, reasoning behind free trade agreements (FTAs), and government policy on economic behavior. Continue reading
Slavery, as Abraham Lincoln often noted, was the root cause of the Civil War. Tensions over slavery dated back to the contradictory nature of the American Revolution of 1776 that resulted in a republic simultaneously committed to freedom for whites and bondage for blacks (Barney W., p. 61). Within years North and South reached the point at which compromise was not possible. At that time Civil War had been started.
In this paper we would analyze the causes of the Civil War and advocate the thesis that slavery was the cause of the Civil War. Continue reading
Why is marijuana illegal? Is it economically necessary to outlaw it or are the reasons medical? Or are we living according to the laws based on the distant past? As the age of availability of information advances, it becomes more and more obvious to everyone that the marijuana prohibition policy is both economically and medically deprived of logic, and therefore should be finally recognized as obsolete. Continue reading
A brief look at statistics immediately tells that there is a major issue with postsecondary remediation. Naturally, this problem can be traced and analyzed in various different directions, inspecting a number of potential causes and factors. Nevertheless, there are two general guidelines that seem to be the most reasonable general solutions to the problem. The first one comprises improving the “how” of education, meaning working towards more effective communication and synergy between secondary and postsecondary institutions. Simultaneously, legislation should address the “why” of educational institutions; altering their financial incentives will inevitably alter their performance. Continue reading
In our habitual life, we make hundreds of decisions. Decisions could be as insignificant selection of clothes and watching TV channels as well as the choice of workplace, university or college at which to pursue an education. Due to the psychological factors, people often spend a disproportionate amount of attention to some decisions, ignoring the value of others. Many decisions are taken without proper systematic deliberation (Hammond, Keeney & Raiffa, 2002, p. 109). However, decision-making in management is a more structured process than in private life. Continue reading
I. Existing technologies in artificial intelligence Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an experimental science. Its task is the re-establishment of reasonable discourses and actions by means of artificial devices. Applied aspect of artificial intelligence involves the tasks solved by computer without explicit algorithmic solutions and sometimes with unclear objectives. Moreover, it is often used “human” methods regarding how to deal with such problems. The scientific aspect of artificial intelligence concerns the explanation of the natural intelligence and simulation of human tasks. The field of artificial intelligence has begun to develop after the appearance of computers. Today, the elements of artificial intelligence are used in many spheres from household appliances to the control of nuclear power plants. The development of artificial intelligence is parallel to the acceleration of computers and advances in cognitive science. It is expected that after several decades artificial intelligence will reach human level and then exceed it. Continue reading
Martin L. King once said that “Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in the darkness of destructive selfishness.” Princeton defines “altruism” as the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others. Most other dictionaries concur. Nevertheless, I have a problem with accepting the value opposition altruism – egoism, and the reason is that for me the concept of “altruism” is philosophically inconsistent. Continue reading
In order to answer the question how does a process becomes automatic we should refer to the definition of automation. “Automation or Industrial Automation is the use of computers to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators. It is a step beyond mechanization, where human operators are provided with machinery to help them in their jobs” (Naresh, 2005, p. 302). From this definition we may derive that key factor distinguishing automatic process is replacement of human labor with automated one. It is not necessarily there is no human labor at all, but we expect that there is no direct labor involved in the processing. Human labor can be used to input raw materials (or other resources) for processing, define processing parameters and to control the process. According to the definition of Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society (ISA), automatic means “functioning without intervention by a human operator under specified conditions” (Dimon, 2002, p. 34). Continue reading