Research Paper on Working Memory: Construct Development, Scale Creation, and Process Analysis

Part I: Construct Development and Scale Creation

1) Choose a construct you would like to measure.

The construct will measure the functionality of working memory (WM) at the workplace, with the example of the performance of bookkeeping tasks.

2) Create an operational definition of your construct using at least three peer reviewed journal articles as sources as references.

Since individual’s WM capacities differ not only among people but also between different tasks or settings (Salthouse & Babcock, 1991), measurements should relate to the field of transfer, in this case – performance bookkeeping tasks. Such tasks typically require transfer of data from one medium to another, e.g. from a list to a computer (Carruthers & Espeland, 1991), and WM is typically defined as the quantity of information recalled 30 seconds after the learning phase (Baddeley, 2003). Hence, the operational definition in this domain should focus on the relative amount of pairs of financial data (i.e. name of account and a sum) recalled out of 15 pairs. Continue reading

Article Critique: “Diverse Teams: Breakdown or Breakthrough?”

1 Introduction Diverse teams’ management is among the central issues in today’s research and practice of business administration (Robbins & Coulter 2004). This kind of work arrangement correspond to the changes in modern societies (Mousumi 2008), balances the best work practices from different sources (Harzing 2004) and is considered as essential for holistic marketing operations (Kotler & Keller 2006). One possible reason for the attractiveness of diverse teams is the promise to combine two popular managerial concepts – workplace diversity and team orientation (David 2007).

Nonetheless, in order to be effective, diverse teams must be managed carefully, as their heterogeneity may also underlie unique challenges. This paper reviews a 1995 article (“the article”)by Griggs & Louw (“the authors”), which presents a study case of unsuccessful management of a diverse team and suggests some guidelines for proper management. The article is criticised in reference to its academic qualities, as well as to its relevance as a helping tool for managers. Continue reading

Research Paper on Evaluating Performance through Motivation and Conflict Management Analysis

1 Introduction One of the main objectives of the science of organizational behavior is to identify potential factors, which can influence one’s performance and/or underline both positive and negative processes at work. Two leading categories in this context are motivational factors and conflict management strategies, both of them have gained tremendous interest throughout the years and will be examined here from two perspectives: First, the predominant theories from the two fields will be examined and evaluated. Second, this paper will bring evidences from Fortune Magazine’s (2009) top four best companies to work for, which demonstrate how the theories mentioned earlier are implemented in contemporary corporate America. Finally, this paper will provide critical analysis to the major disciplines in conflict management, with an attempt to recommend on those practices that can be the most effective today. Continue reading

“What is Business Ethics?” Essay

1 Introduction
Dated back to Code of Hammurabi some 4,000 years ago, business ethics is a social science, whose main aim is to define and examine the responsibilities of businesses and their agents as a part of the general moral environment of a given society. The products of this field of research are sets of rules and codes of conducts, which serve as a means of protection from the possible infringements of moral codes as a result from the general activities and responsibilities of a firm to its stakeholders (e.g. generating profits for shareholders and taxes to the government). This paper will briefly explain the foundations and the growing importance of business ethics in today’s economy. Finally, it will describe several contemporary issues of research and practice. Continue reading

Research Paper on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

1 Introduction The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), also known as the “superbug,” is a source of major concern for public health. First reported in 1961, the disease is no longer a sole property of inpatients’ infections, but spreads rapidly in the community, underlying more deaths in the US than AIDS (Boyles) and shows increasing prevalence not only among people with weak immune system, but also among those who would otherwise be the healthiest among us, such as athletes, military personnel and school-age children (Fang). This paper will shed light on the nature of the disease, its etiology, its agents and the current ways of treatment and prevention. Continue reading

Juvenile Justice System Research Paper

Juvenile delinquency is a serious threat to the current and future safety of American society. Although the results of criminal offences are the same, some would argue that the problem is much more complicated and demands more consideration that adult criminals. That is, the nature and circumstances of juvenile delinquency raise into discussion several main inherent moral and ethical dilemmas:

First, since children and adolescences are much more responsive to environmental pressure, one should carefully consider the motives of a young criminal. For example, a child who cannot afford a status symbol (e.g. fashion brands) would be prone to theft, as he perceives the product as a critical (i.e. a need rather than a want) social barrier. The same holds true for other types of criminal offence such as drug abuse and violence. Continue reading

Essay on Human Anatomy and Physiology: Tracing a Nerve Impulse

(Part one) Trace the impulse, listing the steps in as much detail as possible, from which your brain sends the message to the appropriate muscles to step up one step. Specifically include the steps involved in transmitting the impulase from the neuron to the muscle fiber at the neuromuscular junction. Specify which muscles are pulling on which bones and what type of joints are involved.

The starting point of a voluntary movement impulse is the Central Nervous System (CNS), which includes the brain and the spinal cord. For example, a typical movement may be initiated in the motor cortex of the forebrain, later transmitted downwards through the brain stem into the spinal cord and from the latter to the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), which connects between the CNS and the organs. Both systems function as sensory as well as motor control mechanisms; this review, however, focuses merely on voluntary motor control. Continue reading

The Federal Reserve System Essay

a. Define the purpose and function of money

Money has three purposes in the economy:

First, it is a medium of exchange in economic transactions, by which one party compensates for the other’s goods or services, instead of traditional means such as barter and gold.

Second, individuals can store value in money instead of physical assets. When money is saved, it can be used for future transactions and be exchanged against goods or services that are not needed at the moment.

Third, money is a measurement unit for accounting purposes. That is, since money represents value, the worth of any asset of liability can be stated in money value. This function is essential for understanding the economic significance of an item, either tangible (e.g. machine) or intangible (e.g. goodwill). Another important use of money in this context is the ability to plan budgets and to understand the economic meaning of a business process. Continue reading

Essay on Migration and Refugees from the Algeria

Formerly served as a base for Barbary pirates, Algeria was concurred during the imperialistic era of the 19th century and was declared as part of France in 1830. The French occupation significantly affected the Algerian demography, as more than 100,000 European immigrants came to settle the fertile and oil-reach grounds of Algeria during the second half of the 19th century, while about a third of the original Algerians were migrated out of the country. Continue reading

Research Paper: Using the Giger and Davidhizar’s Transcultural Assessment Model and How Cultural Sensitivity Can Influence Nursing Care

The profession of a nurse has always been one of the most emotionally rewording and at the same time emotionally hard professions. If one is to become a nurse he/she should be a person of a strong character, tender soul, and stable emotional constitution. When working with people one cannot develop a universal approach of dealing with them especially when it comes to working with people who are sick, or are struggling with overcoming the effects of the survived illness.

Thus, nurses have to find a unique approach to every particular patient in order to make his/her experience of receiving medical treatment as smooth as possible. Today in the global world nurses must also take into consideration the cultural background differences of the patients. In my paper I would like to cover the question of cultural sensitivity in relation to nurse treatment. To assess this question I would like to use Giger and Davidhizar’s transcultural assessment model, because it acknowledges the uniqueness of every culture. Continue reading